Character-Set: UTF-8The H-SCHOLAR Network: Scope, Content, Purpose.

H-SCHOLAR is sponsored by the National Coalition of Independent Scholars (NCIS) and is managed by NCIS members who volunteer their time. It is not an organ of NCIS, nor are its subscribers limited to NCIS members. Questions concerning the operation or policies of NCIS should be directed to the NCIS officers or committee chairs responsible for their implementation.

*H-Scholar Survey*

*Please take a moment to fill out the brief survey below and send it to us at You can paste the survey into a new message, or use the "reply" or "forward" function of your e-mail program to create an outgoing message from which you can delete all text except the survey and your answers.*

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Thank you for your cooperation.
The H-Scholar Editors

QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE OPERATION OR POLICIES of H-Scholar should be directed to the current editor of the list, who may share these questions with the editorial board. If you are unsure of the name of the current editor, you may send mail to You will receive an automatic reply informing you that this address will connect you with a person. Don't allow this to intimidate you. Please note that all mail intended for list subscribers to read should be addressed to the list; that is, Write the editor or "Request" directly only when you do not intend to share your mail with other subscribers. .
THE FOCUS OF H-SCHOLAR is the pursuit of serious scholarship that is not supported by institutional resources: independent scholarship. To this end, H-Scholar encourages subscribers to share their research interests, methodologies, and concerns with the larger community; share information and resources; and raise issues of general interest to all working scholars regardless of their discipline or situation.

UNLIKE MOST H-NET LISTS, H-Scholar does not focus on a particular scholarly field or subject area. Its members represent a wide range of scholarly interests. This means that individual subscribers can draw upon a wealth of interests and expertise in submitting queries. It also means that discussions of scholarly issues will be general in nature; technical questions or topics concerning a specific subject area should be directed to another H-Net list. Many H-Scholar list members subscribe to several H-Net lists.

IN ADDITION TO SCHOLARLY ISSUES OF GENERAL INTEREST, H-Scholar addresses practical concerns such as:

- library access, including access to proprietary databases; library policies and relevant library or archive initiatives

- other major research resources (for example, materials useful for historical mapping, image collections, or newspaper archives)

- funding advice, including information about useful online sources for funding information and major grant announcements

-publishing scholarly work

- employment advice, including the "h-net job guide," and also announcements of any employment opportunities that are directed toward independent scholars

- managing time for scholarly work

- discussions of outstanding Internet research resources

- legal issues relevant to scholarship, such as revisions in copyright law or tax law

- computer issues of specific concern to working scholars

- calls for papers or reports on scholarly conferences of general or interdisciplinary interest

- decisions/activities of major scholarly organizations likely to be of general interest

- information about the activities of local or national associations that might be of interest to working scholars, such a discussion of the activities and goals of state humanities councils, or announcements of the formation of new learned societies

The list will also carry information about the activities and events planned by NCIS and its affiliated societies. The editors welcome suggestions for other subjects that H-Scholar should cover.

LIKE OTHER H-NET LISTS, H-Scholar follows the by-laws, policies, and procedures of H-Net concerning matters such as the style and content of messages, copyright, etc. (See below, under "Guidelines for Communication.")


The editors serve two-year renewable terms, with the approval of the H-Net Executive Committee and rotate their duties. The current editor will be identified in all messages coming from the list.

Editors will solicit postings (by email, phone and even by regular mail), will assist subscribers in managing subscriptions and setting up options, and will handle routine inquiries.

Except for correction of minor typographical errors, no post will be changed by the editor without consultation with the author. Editorial interjections or clarifications will always be indicated in brackets: [Ed. note....]

A post may be returned to the author with an explanation of why something in it is not acceptable and with suggestions for changes. The editor may also indicate that the post should be directed to another H-Net list or another recipient. Editors may consolidate several posts on the same subject.

For a current list of editors, visit:


LIKE ALL H-NET LISTS, H-SCHOLAR is moderated to edit out material that, in the editors' opinion, is not germane to the list, involves technical matters (such as subscription management requests), is inflammatory, or violates evolving, yet common, standards of Internet etiquette.

H-Net has a procedure for resolving disputes over list editorial practices. See Article II, Section 2.20 of the bylaws, located at:

COPYRIGHT NOTICE-- PLEASE READ CAREFULLY. H-Net considers all messages posted to its lists to be a form of publication. All contributions to H-SCHOLAR fall under Art. III, Sec. 3.01-3.08 of the H-Net Council Policies concerning copyright and intellectual property:

"H-Net is a nonprofit communications service intended to advance the teaching, research, and service of scholars, educators, and students. Preserving copyright rights is a collective responsibility: H-Net users and editors must respect the intellectual property of others. Consistent with the objective of encouraging creativity in scholarship and education, editors and users are encouraged to transmit copyrighted works to or through H-Net, with the express permission of the copyright holder or in accordance with the fair use provisions of copyright law. H-Net considers posting to H-Net lists or Web, as contrasted with private e-mail correspondence, to be a form of publication." In general, the author retains copyright rights to publication of any submission to the list, and grants to H-SCHOLAR and H-Net permission to store, disseminate with full attribution, and make available to subscribers such submissions without further permission. Postings (such as H-Net reviews) that are commissioned by H-Net are copyrighted by H-Net and may be reprinted for nonprofit, educational purposes with proper attribution to the author, location, and H-Net. A full copy of the H-Net Constitution and Bylaws and other important information may be found on the World Wide Web at:


The editors want to encourage lively, informal, productive discussion and exchange of information. To that end, we ask that subscribers observe the following rules for communication, content, style, and format:

-LENGTH: be considerate of the needs of a busy audience of scholars, many of whom must pay for their access to the internet. When you reply to previous posts, edit the post you are referring to as much as possible, quoting ONLY enough to make the reference to your own post understandable. For example:

"In response to Mr. Roe's question

<snip> `Where is the clear-cut nexus which science desiderates?'

I would reply that...."

- IDENTIFYING QUOTES: Please be sure that the authors of the posts to which you are replying are clearly identified. (Often, when one subscriber quotes another post, the quote becomes embedded in their e-mail message, with their own name at the very end, so it looks as if the respondent had written the initial post, instead of the reply.) When you use the "reply" function, the name of the H-Scholar editor may automatically appear at the beginning, as if he or she were the author of the quote. You can avoid this confusion this by beginning your post with "Jane Doe said," clearly identifying the person who submitted the original post. This is also helpful to people who wish to find the initial post in the index.

- "NETIQUETTE": A number of excellent guides to online behavior and style are available on the World Wide Web; we invite you consult them. The editors will ask authors to delete personal or ad hominem criticisms, publication of sensitive or personal information such as the home address of a third party, unattributed quotations or innuendo, private messages forwarded for posting without permission, or messages that in general violate the norms of civility and professional courtesy. Persistent violators can be removed from the subscription list.

- GERMANE-NESS to the list: please remember that the focus of our list is scholarly issues that cross disciplinary lines, and issues confronting independent scholars.

- EXTENDED DISCUSSION: editors may halt an extended discussion of a single issue and invite people who are especially interested in the subject to continue discussion among themselves.

- N0 "COMMERCIALS" PLEASE: H-Scholar is operated by H-Net, which is a nonprofit organization, funded by other non-profit and government agencies. The IRS rules regarding commercial activities by non-profits are very strict. We know that many of our subscribers have written books, or have services or products they would like to share, but we are not allowed to accept anything that might be construed as a commercial message, including listings of new books. If you have a new book, multimedia publication, or cd, let our editor know, and we will try to find an appropriate person to review it for H-Scholar or for another list. But DON'T submit an announcement that says:

"I want you all to know that my latest book, _The Walrus and the Carpenter: Victims of Red Tide?_ has just been published by the Systole press, and you can order it for $50.00"

(There are other scholarly lists that are not run by H-Net that have a more liberal policy about this; it is worth looking around to find ones in your own fields.)

It IS, however, acceptable to respond to a query from another list member, as:

"In response to Mr. Roe's query about gender issues in Alice in Wonderland, I address this subject in my recent book, _Transgressing boundaries: Tweedledum, Tweedledee: and incest in Victorian Britain_"

We encourage you to tell us about your recent work- how you became interested in it, the scholarly challenges you faced, etc. Just be careful not to promote its sale.

-- H-NET REQUIRES THAT ALL MESSAGE BE SIGNED and that e-mail addresses be included. You may do this at the head of your message:

"Submitted by Jane Doe"

or at the end of your message

"Sincerely, Jane Doe"

(If you wish, you may include your mailing address and phone number, but these are not required.)

STYLE: the default editorial style for the list is that of a letter to the editor. Your remarks can be crafted to suit the tone of an existing discussion thread, but in any case they should address the editor and not make direct personal references to others, except where you are replying directly to a simple query (e.g., "you can find this information in Webster's Third International Dictionary.").

-- FORMAT: Please send messages in plain text: no styles, html, special fonts, graphics files, or nonstandard characters (except diacriticals, which are acceptable) [but see recent H-Editor discussion on this]. Please remove signature files. Remove or turn off .vcf, digital signatures, or other automatic attachments. Editors do not redistribute attachments to the list; consider posting the material at a web site, or consult with the editor concerning proper venues for publication.

V. The H-SCHOLAR Site on the World Wide Web

In addition to providing interactive communications via electronic mail, H-SCHOLAR also maintains a site on the World Wide Web. The site is located on the H-Net server at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, USA. It may be located by following the hypertext links at web site contains the following information and services:

- The archives of the H-SCHOLAR list, known as its "logs." They are in searchable and sortable format. - The network's official documents: its welcome files, lists of board members and editors, contact information, and other founding and information documents. - Hypertext links to resources in our subject: teaching materials, research archives, other lists.

V. Advisory Board.

H-SCHOLAR's daily activities are managed by the editors. Its long-term policies are developed by the advisory board. If you are interested in serving on the board, please contact the current editor. Board members referee incoming articles, reviews, and teaching materials; establish basic subscription restrictions and policy; advise the editors on disputes among editors and subscribers; monitor the list and make active contributions to discussion; and serve as the subscribers' voice in H-Net affairs. You are encouraged to contact any or all of the editorial board members with ideas and concerns about H-SCHOLAR.

For a list of the current advisory board, visit:

VI. Our Parent Organization: H-Net

H-Net is an international consortium of scholars in the humanities and social sciences that creates and coordinates electronic networks, using a variety of media, and with a common objective of advancing humanities and social science teaching and research. H-Net was created to provide a positive, supportive, equalitarian environment for the friendly exchange of ideas and scholarly resources.

The goals of H-NET networks are to enable scholars to easily communicate current research and teaching interests; to discuss new approaches, methods and tools of analysis; to share information on electronic databases; and to test new ideas and share comments on the literature in their fields.

H-Net's Constitution and Bylaws, along with a list of its officers and committees, is available at:

Among H-Net's many services are:

- Book and software reviews: timely, exhaustive, authoritative, professional, fast. Mailed through our lists and stored in searchable, printable, retrievable format on our site at the World Wide Web.

- Job guide postings: at regular intervals, H-Net offers employment information in a broad array of fields in the humanities and social sciences.

- H-Net calendar: announcements of conferences, papers, and professional activities, archived and searchable at our web site. You can visit our site and sample these and other services, at:


On the World Wide Web:

Electronic mail:

Postal mail:

141h Old Horticulture
506 East Circle Drive
East Lansing, MI 48824
Phone: (517) 432-5134
Fax: (517) 884-6994

Executive Director: Prof. Peter Knupfer
Michigan State University

Associate Director: Heather Hawley
Michigan State University