View the h-west-africa Discussion Logs by month
View the Prior Message in h-west-africa's May 2010 logs by: [date] [author] [thread]
View the Next Message in h-west-africa's May 2010 logs by: [date] [author] [thread]
Visit the h-west-africa home page.
X-Posted from H-NET List for the History of Slavery <H-SLAVERY@H-NET.MSU.EDU> From: Steven Mintz <sm3031@COLUMBIA.EDU> _________ REPLY 1. From: Clayton E. Cramer [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] American Colonization Society, _The African Repository_, 42:222-223 contains a table of those colonized, broken down by category. Born free, 4501. Purchased their freedom: 344. Emancipated to go to Liberia, 5957. Freedmen, 172. From Barbados, 346. Unknown, 68, Total 11,288. There is also an annual cost table. Clayton E. Cramer email@example.com <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> _________ REPLY 2. From: hmacdougall@STNY.RR.COM One figure I have seen is that between 1820 and 1850, the ACS had sent 84 ships to Liberia, with 6,100 would-be settlers. Of these, 2,300 had been born free, 165 had purchased their freedom, and 3,600 had been emancipated on condition that they leave for Liberia. An additional 800 had gone to the then separate colony of Maryland-in-Liberia, to the east of Liberia itself. See, e.g., M. Teah Wulah, "Back to Africa: A Liberian Tragedy" (2009), p. 297. The ACS kept remarkably detailed statistics on the ships it sent to Liberia, and in 1843 there was a detailed census of the colony. The usual guesstimate for the total number of African-Americans who went to Liberia is something like 12,000. Hugh MacDougall, Cooperstown, NY _________ REPLY 3. From: Mark Auslander [email@example.com] I will defer to those with greater expertise, but I believe that part of the challenge in estimating numbers is distinguishing between emigrants sent by the American Colonization Society (something on the order of 13,000, at least that is what the ACS claimed), those sent by its sometime rival, the Maryland State Colonization Society to Maryland in Africa (around 1,200) and "recaptured Africans" sent to Liberia by the U.S. Government (over 5,000). I have seen MSCS accounts of enslaved persons being formally manumitted on board ship by sea captains, once beyond the three mile territorial limit, if memory serves. But I am not sure how frequent this practice was. As I say, others will be able to help with more precise estimates. all the best, Mark _________ REPLY 4. From: npcoxletters@HOTMAIL.COM Eugene Genovese counts "about ten thousand" slaves who were colonized in Liberia (Roll, Jordan, Roll, 126) but Peter Kolchin counts "about six thousand" more specifically attributed to the work of the ACS (American Slavery, 185). Neither specifies what proportion were manumitted upon colonization or lived free for a period before departure. Nicholas P. Cox Doctoral Candidate University of Houston _________ REPLY 5. From: finkenre@UDMERCY.EDU <mailto:finkenre@UDMERCY.EDU> I forget the source -- probably the quantitative work of the late Tom W. Shick -- but my understanding is that the ACS took 10,000 blacks to Liberia before the Civil War. About 4,000 of these were free blacks. Roy E. Finkenbine Professor of History and Director of the Black Abolitionist Archives University of Detroit Mercy 4001 West McNichols Road Detroit, MI 48221 (313) 993-1016 firstname.lastname@example.org <mailto:email@example.com> _________ REPLY 6. From: jh3v@VIRGINIA.EDU <mailto:jh3v@VIRGINIA.EDU> check this website http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/liberia/index.php?page=Virginia%20Emigrants%20To%20Liberia <https://outlook.cuit.columbia.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/liberia/index.php?page=Virginia%2520Emigrants%2520To%2520Liberia>