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Answering Ms. Krista Gettle's question Mr. Steve Paulsson wrote: >Chopin's Revolutionary Etude was composed to commemorate the 1830 >Polish uprising against Russia, and is a powerful Polish nationalist >symbol. It was frequently played, along with other patriotic music >such as Chopin's 'Military' Polonaise in A major, by the Polish Radio >during the invasion. >Polish radio continued to broadcast during the siege of Warsaw for >as long as power lasted. Soon after the start of the Nazi >occupation, all radio receivers were confiscated and possession of a >radio set became illegal. In Warsaw and other cities, street >loudspeakers broadcast Nazi propaganda and news in lieu of a radio >system. They certainly never played anything that might have >reinforced Polish national sentiment I write to confirm, to amplify, and, alas, to protest, certain parts of the above text. Chopin's Etude had been played by the Polish Radio during the siege of Warsaw broadcasts, but it was the "Warszawianka" - the "Varsovienne" - which regularly ended the programming. The Polish Radio broadcast until the 22nd or 23rd of September, when the power station had finally been bombed out of operation by the Germans. The subsidiary radio station was also demolished almost immediately, and the broadcasts ceased. I know for certain that there was no electric power in Warsaw on September 25; one of the meetings organizing the Polish underground was held by candlelight, and it was not a local power failure. The Germans ordered the confiscation of all radio receivers owned by the Poles, but they were not all surrendered; far from it. Many people afraid of the penalties destroyed them rather then give them to the Germans; many kept them to listen to the BBC and other stations. We kept our receiver, and in addition, I and my friends put together another headphone radio set. It is true that the "szczekaczki" - the "barking" loudspeakers as we called them - played only German news, propaganda, and announcements. It may interests you that on two separate occasions they did play Polish patriotic music and speeches. "Wawer," a resistance organization within "Small Sabotage," spliced into them to boost the Polish morale and to annoy the hell out of the Germans. The first broadcast involved only one loudspeaker at Wilson Square, in the northern part of Warsaw. It was inactive, because the wires to it were damaged during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, still fighting and burning then. A short connection was run from it to the nearby phone box and through it, on the 3rd of May, 1943, an important national holiday, a 15 minute broadcast played the Polish national anthem, other patriotic music, and a specially prepared speech. A similar broadcast was organized in the downtown section of Warsaw at noon, 31 July 1943. Since it was inaudible, it was successfully repeated at 1300 hours and heard through several megaphones in by thousands of people. Those of us who survived the German occupation and fought the Germans find the growing custom of saying "Nazi" occupation, "Nazi" invasion, and the like, to say the least, grating. Nobody talked or wrote like that then, least of all the Germans themselves. It sounds anachronistic, yes, anachronistic, weird, it is inaccurate, and it is a bit of currently fashionable PC whitewashing, which I do not for a moment believe is Mr. Paulsson's intention, and who writes well and accurately about the events in occupied Poland. I know Chancellor Kohl loves it and does it himself - he recently waxed eloquent about the liberation of Germany from the Nazis. I'll die calling it what it was: German invasion, German occupation, German bullet that smashed into me, and three German camps I was imprisoned in. If someone sees some pathological dislike of the Germans behind my position, he is wrong. Sincerely, Tadeusz K. Gierymski