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Included are some yet to be posted "slave pens" references from the Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism a by-product of the Holt House research. Most of the research was drawn from secondary accounts - though a rather thorough search of Census records may likely reveal details of the slave pen populations that you seek. For instance while searching the census, I found the records for the most notorious one in Alexandria, which confirmed secondary source records that it was mostly children and teenagers who were being purchased from their masters in the metropolitan area to be sold into slavery in the deep south. Foreign travelers accounts from the 1830 and 1840 described the Robey and Williams slave pens which stood along the Mall in the shadow of the Capitol; the two were often juxtaposed in artworks, and the presence of slave pens in the center of the nation's capitol captured the attention of abolitionists. (Ironically, today the Museum of African Art sits less than a block away from the former location of the Robey and Williams slave pens.) (The Mall, On-line Reference from the University of Virginia American Studies Department, Site developed by Mary Halnon http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/MALL/text1.html) Robey's Slave Pen - Now the site of the Federal Aviation Administration building on Independence Avenue between 7th and 9th Streets, S.W., formerly 8th and B (now Independence Avenue) Streets, S.W. (ON THIS SPOT: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, DC by Douglas E. Evelyn and Paul Dickson, http://www.swdc.org/swfacts.htm) "The District of Columbia, too small for slave rearing itself, served as depot for the purchase of interstate traders, who combed Maryland and northern Virginia for slaves. Since the slave jails, colloquially known as 'Georgia pens", and described by an ex-slave as worse than hog holes, were inadequate for the great demand, the public jails were made use of, accommodations for the criminals having to wait upon the more pressing and lucrative traffic in slaves. There were pens in what is now Potomac Park: and one in the Decatur House, fronting on what is now Lafayette Square. More notorious were McCandless' Tavern in Georgetown; in Washington, Robey's Tavern at Seventh and Maryland Avenue, and Williams' 'Yellow House' at Eighth and B street SW. In Alexandria, the pretentious establishment of Armfield and Franklin, who by 1834 were sending more than a thousand slaves a year to the Southwest, was succeeded and surpassed by the shambles of much-feared Kephart." (Washington, City and Capitol, Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration, American Guide Series. Washington, 1937, USGPO. p69) 1830 Virginia Census shows the holdings of the Armfield and Franklin slave pen. Their inventory of consisted of predominantly of children and teenagers who would be taken from Virginia and surrounding States and sold to work the Cotton Plantations. Sex and Age for 1830 census for the slave Pen of Armfield and Franklin. 1 male under 10 50 males 10-24 20 males 24—36 4 females under 10 50 females 10-24 20 females 24-36 (1830 DC Census Alexandria page 270) Franklin and Armfield business dealings depended largely on the agents representing the enterprise, who were scattered throughout slave-holding areas of Maryland and Virginia. In Richmond there was R.C. Ballard & Co.; in Warrenton, Virginia, J.M. Saunders & Co.; in Baltimore, Rockville and Fredericktown, Maryland, George Kephart; in Frederick, Maryland, James Franklin Purvis, nephew of Isaac Franklin; and in Easton, Maryland, Thomas M. Jones (Sweig 1980;8). There eventually were three ships traveling between New Orleans and Alexandria for Franklin and Armfield—the Tribune, the Uncas, and the Isaac Franklin. (The Alexandria Slave Pen: The Archaeology of Urban Captivity, by Janice G. Artemel, Elizabeth A. Crowell and Jeff Parker, October 1987. Engineering-Science, Inc. Washington, DC) For graphs showing the Age and Sex Selectivity in Slave Export from Virginia see http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/slavetrade/agesex.html The graph was used “to make a rough estimation of the impact commercial traders made in each subregion. While planters moving entire plantations tended to carry most slaves with them, from infants to older men and women, traders sought out the most marketable--men and women of prime work and child-bearing age. In a best-case scenario for slave families and communities, we assume that planters did not act selectively in moving west--that is, they simply gathered everyone in the caravan. Since they would have drawn from every age and sex group in same proportions, the percentage of older slaves exported provides an indicator of planters' slave migrations. If planters took every migrating slave in the oldest group, and traders took none, then planters in the tidewater and piedmont tended to draw away between 3 and 6 percent of each age-sex cohort in the 1820s. Traders, then, would have been responsible for the remainder--the majority of slaves in their teens and twenties. (Geographies of Family and Market: Virginia's Domestic Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century, Phillip D. Troutman Research Fellow Carter G. Woodson Institute for Afro-American and African Studies Ph.D. Candidate Corcoran Department of History University of Virginia, firstname.lastname@example.org http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/slavetrade/agesex.html see also http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/slavetrade/) 1830 John Gadsby was said to live in the Decatur house. The Census for Washington City shows John Gadsby with 38 slaves (1830 Census page 123) Solomon Nothup, a freed man was kidnapped in Washington DC, held in a slave pen and sold into slavery. "It occurred to me then that I must be in an underground apartment, and the damp, moldy odors of the place confirmed the supposition. The noise above continued for at least an hour, when, at last, I heard footsteps approaching from without. A key rattled in the lock - a strong door swung back upon its hinges, admitting a flood of light, and two men entered and stood before me. One of them was a large, powerful man, forty years of age, perhaps, with dark, chestnut-colored hair, slightly interspersed with gray. His face was full, his complexion flush, his features grossly coarse, expressive of nothing but cruelty and cunning. He was about five feet ten inches high, of full habit, and, without prejudice, I must be allowed to say, was a man whose whole appearance was sinister and repugnant. His name was James H. Burch, as I learned afterwards - a well-known slave-dealer in Washington; and then, or lately connected in business, as a partner, with Theophilus Freeman, of New-Orleans. The person who accompanied him was a simple lackey, named Ebenezer Radburn, who acted merely in the capacity of turnkey. Both of these men still live in Washington, or did, at the time of my return through that city from slavery in January last. The light admitted through the open door enabled me to observe the room in which I was confined. It was about twelve feet square - the walls of solid masonry. The floor was of heavy plank. There was one small window, crossed with great iron bars, with an outside shutter, securely fastened. An iron-bound door led into an adjoining cell, or vault, wholly destitute of windows, or any means of admitting light. The furniture of the room in which I was, consisted of the wooden bench on which I sat, an old-fashioned, dirty box stove, and besides these, in either cell, there was neither bed, nor blanket, nor any other thing whatever. The door, through which Burch and Radburn entered, led through a small passage, up a flight of steps into a yard, surrounded by a brick wall ten or twelve feet high, immediately in rear of a building of the same width as itself. The yard extended rearward from the house about thirty feet. In one part of the wall there was a strongly ironed door, opening into a narrow, covered passage, leading along one side of the house into the street. The doom of the colored man, upon whom the door leading out of that narrow passage closed, was sealed. The top of the wall supported one end of a roof, which ascended inwards, forming a kind of open shed. Underneath the roof there was a crazy loft all round, where slaves, if so disposed, might sleep at night, or in inclement weather seek shelter from the storm. It was like a farmer's barnyard in most respects, save it was so constructed that the outside world could never see the human cattle that were herded there. The building to which the yard was attached, was two stories high, fronting on one of the public streets of Washington. Its outside presented only the appearance of a quiet private residence. A stranger looking at it, would never have dreamed of its execrable uses. Strange as it may seem, within plain sight of this same house, looking down from its commanding height upon it, was the Capitol. The voices of patriotic representatives boasting of freedom and equality, and the rattling of the poor slave's chains, almost commingled. A slave pen within the very shadow of the Capitol! Such is a correct description as it was in 1841, of Williams' slave pen in Washington, in one of the cellars of which I found myself so unaccountably confined." (Twelve Years a Slave. Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853.: First published in 1853. Electronic Edition. http://metalab.unc.edu/docsouth/northup/northup.html) SCENE IN THE SLAVE PEN AT WASHINGTON. (Northup, Solomon, "Twelve Years a Slave. Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841" Auburn: Derby and Miller..., 1853 Facing page 45 http://metalab.unc.edu/docsouth/northup/illustr1.html) In Fairfax County Virginia, a major source of income for residents came from selling or hiring out their excess slaves. Slave markets were run by Joseph Bruin at the West End and by Alexander Grigsby at Centreville. There were frequent slave auctions at the front door of the Fairfax courthouse. Bruin regularly advertised in the Gazette that he offered "cash for Negroes," and that he was "at all times in the market" for "likely young Negroes for the South" pay liberal prices for all Negroes from 10-30 years of age." Gazettette, 20 March 1944. (Fairfax County, Virginia a History. Fairfax County Board of Supervisors, Fairfax, Virginia, 1978 p 262) Price, Birch, & Company Slave Pen Duke St., Alexandria, Virginia (William Pywell, 1863; LOC) Before the war a child would sell for about $50.00, a man at $1,000-$1,800 and a woman from $500 to $1,500.00 Franklin and Armfield Office 1315 Duke Street Built in 1812 as a residence for General Andrew Young, this was the office building of the former interstate slave trading complex which stood on the site from 1828 to 1861. By 1835 Franklin and Armfield controlled nearly half the coastal slave trade from Virginia and Maryland to New Orleans. In 1846 the property was sold to a Franklin and Armfield agent, George Kephart, whose business became "the chief slave-dealing firm in [Virginia] and perhaps anywhere along the border between the Free and Slave States." After 1858, the slave pen was known as Price, Birch, and Co., and their sign can be seen in a Civil War era photograph. The business was appalling to many, especially to active abolitionists in Alexandria, where the large Quaker population contributed to a general distaste for slavery. Several abolitionists' accounts survive which describe the slave pen and the conditions encountered therein. Behind the house was a yard containing several structures, surrounded by a high, whitewashed brick wall. Male slaves were located in a yard to the west, while women and children were kept in a yard to the east, separated by a passage and a strong grated door of iron. The complex served as a Civil War prison from 1861 to 1865, and housed the Alexandria Hospital from 1878 to 1885. It was later apartments, and was renovated as offices in 1984. (Office of Historic Alexandria, Alexandria Sites Listed on the National Register of Historic Places http://ci.alexandria.va.us/oha/oha-main/oha-natreg.html) For those older states on the Atlantic coast where cotton did not flourish and whose soil was severely depleted by two centuries of tobacco cultivation, slaves became the most important export product. Peter Kolchin estimates that as many as a million slaves were transported from the East, primarily Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, between 1790 and 1860, with Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas the main destinations. The 1830s and 1850s were high points in slave migration to the west. (Peter Kolchin. American Slavery 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, 96) Recent research by Michael Tadman emphasizes the acceleration and impact of slave sales in the movement of slaves to the west and deep South. For example, between the years 1828 and 1836 just one slave auction house, that of Isaac Franklin and John Armfield in Alexandria, Virginia, bought and resold over eight thousand slaves. (Peter Kolchin. American Slavery 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, 97) In 1834 Bacon Tait urged prospective customers to inspect his newly constructed slave auction house in Richmond, which was ideal for Negroes so as to "be well prepared to encounter a change of climate when removed to the South." A man could trust Tait's accommodations to be clean, safe and run in an orderly manner. (Richmond Whig and Public Advertiser, (semi-weekly,) December 30, 1834) Again in the same year Tait emphasized to the slave holding public, ". . . the price of cotton is high, Virginia slaveholders would do well to sell now." (Richmond Whig and Public Advertiser, (semi-weekly,) June 12, 1835.) Sale to the South was incentive for profit for the Virginia slave owner, but once delivered to New Orleans or other points in the Deep South, it was the Virginia origins of slaves that were stressed and often justified a high price. Of the seven professional slave dealers advertising in the New Orleans press in 1850, most characterized the slaves to be sold as having come from Virginia and Maryland. (Schafer, Judith Kelleher. "New Orleans Slavery in 1850 as Seen in Advertisements," Journal of Southern History, Vol. XLVII, No. 1, February 1981, 46:33-56. Page 34) The Three-Chopped Road between Richmond and the Shenandoah Valley and the roads across the Appalachians into Kentucky or South-west into Tennessee were the conduits for the ever- present slave coffles walking or carted in chains out of the state. The details of family breakup and emotional turmoil caused by sale out of state can only be imagined, but the figures give some idea of the likelihood of such an occurrence happening in the life of any individual slave. During the last thirty years of the antebellum period young men and young women were increasingly likely to be removed to the Deep South. In Virginia, 18 percent of the slave girls exported out of the state, from 1850 to 1860, were 15 to 19 years of age. For women in the 20 to 29 year age bracket the chances were much higher. During the same decade, 22 percent of that older age group were sold out of state. (Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves: masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South. University of Wisconsin Press, 1989 page 302) How many of that number were sold away from infants and young children can only be guessed at. Any advance warning of such an impending crisis would cause a woman to seriously assess her options whether it be to steal a visit to relatives for a last farewell or to make a run for the North. ("So That I Can Get Her Again": African American Slave Women Runaways in Selected Richmond, Virginia Newspapers, 1830-1860, and the Richmond, Virginia Police Guard Daybook, 1834-1843. By Leni Ashmore Sorensen The College of William & Mary http://www.virginia.edu/~history/graduate/southcon/southcon.97/sorensen.html#16) H-DC Editor <email@example.com> wrote: From: Gloriousbach@aol.com Both a regular market and a slave market (called "the Pen" in the early 1830s) were located on 6th Street, SW, probably near the intersection near P Street. Does anyone have information on these structures? Carmen Grayson (firstname.lastname@example.org) [Check out the sources list at: http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~dclist/slavery.html --a new draft addition to the H-DC website --Ed.] Matthew Gilmore H-DC list co-editor, web editor email@example.com http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~dclist/ [list website] http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/lists/subscribe.cgi?list=H-DC [subscribe to H-DC] Remember to check http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=lm&list=h-dc for past list messages.