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(1) Wagner certainly arrived at a biological racism :"The Jew is the m ost astounding instance of racial congruence ever offered by world-history...Even commixture of blood does not hurt him; let Jew or Jewess intermarry with the most distinct of races, a Jew will always come to birth" (Know Thyself,1881, quoted in my Wagner: Race and Revolution, p. 153). Of course, elements of his earlier cultural racism persist, but his entire 1870's doctrine of Regeneration (culminating in Parsifal) is rooted in "blood" theory. The frequency of his reading of Darwin in that decade is attested by the Cosima diaries. (2) As to Marr, his eugenics was racially based; his earlier works (and his own marriages with Jews) evidenced a program to improve even Jewish race by interbreeding with higher races (See my German Question/Jewish Question, pp. 284-7). Marr's identification of a Jewish "chemical essence" is effectively a biological concept. And in his Judenkrieg of 1879-80 Marr refers to the "empirical-scientific question of race....this physiological and psychological phenomenon". Finally, regarding the debate on the origin of "antisemitism" I would completely agree with Richard Levy that the 1870's reveals a dramatically new terrain for Jew-hatred and "antisemitism" was invented as a political and intellectual discourse that could reveal it; what I meant in my earlier note was that this new antisemitism nevertheless had strong roots, for all its apparent novelty, in the Jew-hatred of both the preceding century of "philosophical humanism" and in the preceding Christian millennium. Some of the main themes of "modern antisemitism" are largely secular transformations of earlier Xtian motifs, though the changing social and urban landscape of the 1870's did certainly introduce an intensification of several ideas that might be seen as "new".I am not convinced though that many of the "urban" antisemitic themes of political antisemitism did not have their precedents in medieval urban antisemitism. Paul Lawrence Rose PLR2@PSUVM.PSU.EDU