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 >Date: Fri, 04 Aug 2000 04:33:25 -0500 >From: David Anthony Tyeeme Clark <firstname.lastname@example.org> Hi Amanda, a ne me ka we wa, ke wi ta mo ne i no ki i i. ni ka no na i. There are no doubt others on this list who will know more about scholarship on powwow cultures, and understand better their complexities. bi tti me ta mwa. mya ne ke wa. wa wa ne ke wa. One major theme in the historical studies of powwows is continuity influenced by ongoing negotiations with broader communities. Focusing on Kiowa and other "southern plains" people and within the limits posed by western historical technologies and loyalties, Clyde Ellis, "'We Don't Want Your Rations, We Want This Dance': The Changing Use of Song and Dance on the Southern Plains, _Western Historical Quarterly_ 30, no. 2 (1999): 133-154, shows why song and dance remain central in the construction of identity for many Indian people. See also Benjamin R. Kracht, "Kiowa Powwows: Continuity in Ritual Practice," _American Indian Quarterly_ 18, no. 3 (1994): 321-348. Where some see continuity and tradition when observing powwow cultures, others see invention or innovation. Robert DesJarlait, "The Contest Powwow versus the Traditional Powwow and the Role of the Native American Community," _Wicazo Sa Review_ 12, no. 1 (1997): 115-127, compares earlier (and ongoing) forms that reflected (or, I would suggest, constituted) individual identity and the identity of particular and specific native kinship communities with those forms since the 1950s that favor "intertribal" collaboration from a Objibwe-Anishinaabe perspective. For another angle of vision on what he calls "the mother of all inventions" in a chapter on "borderland ceremonies and border-crossers," see Douglas E. Foley, _The Heartland Chronicles_ (Pennsylvania, 1995), pages 129-134. Russell Means broadly comments on just about everything, including powwows. See _Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of Russell Means_, with Marvin J. Wolf (St. Martin's Griffin, 1995), 69, 538. Means sees (or at least in one moment saw) powwows as "mockeries of our culture" and as "the lazy way to be an Indian." Naturally, many people disagree with this assessment. Singing and dancing has been and remains one path to Indian leadership (although it is not really as simple as that) and activism/organizing, as the example of Clyde Warrior so clearly suggests (see the discussion of Warrior, a Ponca person and well-known fancydancer, in Paul Chaat Smith and Robert Allen Warrior, _Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee [Free Press, 1996]). See also Loretta Fowler, _Shared Symbols, Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History, 1778-1984_ (Cornell, 1987) and Clyde Ellis, "'Truly Dancing Their Own Way': Modern Revival and Diffusion of the Gourd Dance," _American Indian Quarterly_ 14, no. 1 (1990): 19-33. Mark Mattern, "The Powwow as a Public Arena for Negotiating Unity and Diversity in American Indian Life," _American Indian Culture and Research Journal_ 20, no. 4 (1996): 183-201, sees powwows as means for communicating (performing) community identities and for negotiating disagreements among community members, as does Morris Foster, _Being Commanche: A Social History of an American Indian Community_ (Arizona, 1991). See also Joan Weibel-Orlando, _Indian Country, L.A.: Maintaining Ethnic Community in Complex Society_, rev. ed. (Illinois, 1999) and Joane Nagel, _American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red Power and the Resurgence of Identity and Culture_ (Oxford, 1996). I hope this helps. wa wa non, no wi na ke wa, Tony Clark American Studies Program University of Kansas <email@example.com>  Date: Fri, 4 Aug 2000 06:28:07 -0700 (PDT) From: Karen Rae Mehaffey <firstname.lastname@example.org> You may want to contact Greenfield Village/Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, MI. They have been developing a historical pow-wow scenario to offer to the public. The person that was handling it is Ms. Faith Kerr. She has been working with a Native American Anthropologist, as I understand it. You can check out the museum website at: http://www.hfmgv.org/index2.html and call at 271-1620. Ask for Faith in the Education dept. Karen Rae Mehaffey <email@example.com>