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A quick addendum to Greg T. Smith's informative review of Peltonen's new book on the duel (and thank you for the review, Greg Smith) - Fencing and, evidently, dueling among noblewomen were rather in vogue at the Stuart court. The exotic Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin, e.g., was quite a devotee of this new 'female sport'; her talent in this vein is documented in Allan Fea's "Some Beauties of the Seventeenth Century" (London: Methuen, 1907; 82 images); see Chapter I for Mancini, especially p. 19. Furthermore, Winifred (Gardner), Baroness Burghclere, in her "Villiers" (NY: E P Dutton, 1903; 10 images), mentions a (rumored) duel between the intriguing Mary (Stuart nee Villiers), Duchess of Richmond & Lennox (very probably the 'Ephelia' poet) and "a female rival" (p. 140), possibly Lady Katherine Crofts. (Mary Villiers' younger brother, the Court Wit, George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, as well as Mary's third husband, Captain Thomas Howard, were skilled duelists, as broadly documented. She didn't have to look far for lessons.) Good wishes & 'Happy Summer' to all on the List, MEM Maureen E. Mulvihill Princeton Research Forum Princeton, NJ firstname.lastname@example.org