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------------------ Is there any consensus about appropriate names to use for the three rulers of the Maasina (Macina, Massina) state or "Diina" (1818-1862) in what is now Mali? The question actually arises from a discussion on Wikipedia about how to title pages on the latter two of the three rulers, but it in turn raises some interesting questions about how names were used in the region before colonization. There seem to be two sets of appellations from which to choose (not counting variations on the first ruler's name, and not being concerned with alternate spellings): * Seku Amadu, Amadu Seku, and Amadu Amadu * Seku Amadu, (Seku) Amadu II, and (Seku) Amadu III The first set of names are used locally in Mali as well as in some literature (esp. that focusing on Maasina) such as Ba & Daget (1962) and Sanankoua (1990). As I understand it, the formula for the names used for the second two rulers is given name followed by father's appellation or given name. The numbered names are also used in some literature, such as works by David Robinson, as well as in some references. The numbering of monarchs of the same name is standard practice in the West, and has been applied in some cases elsewhere in Africa, so a first question would be when the use of Amadu II and Amadu III (and in some cases Amadu I) came into use when discussing these leaders? One argument made in favor of using the numbered forms of the names rather than the forms in current popular usage, is that if one goes back to the period in question the appellations varied such that Seku Amadu and Amadu Seku might refer to either of the first two rulers. ("Seku" is of course the local form of an Arabic honorific that at some point also began to be used as a given name.) Also, the Fulfulde names given to or associated with Seku Amadu are several (and there are apparently at least two ways he is referred to in Arabic language sources), so to a certain degree any effort to find a single formal name for him (or likewise for his descendents) will reach no conclusion. So it seems one must choose some currently used, recognizable forms. Which forms of the names of these historical figures would be more appropriate in academic writing or in widely used (and mirrored) popular references such as Wikipedia?