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I can only speak to afterward (by 1981). Jeff Barlow and Ed Marolda have a better handle on CTF-77 command and control in earlier days. Okay, here is what I know: CTF-77 is one about nine CTFs under Commander, SEVENTH Fleet. As Stu lists, it was the CDR of the carrier striking force and it was a permanent TF on paper. However, by 1981 this was a dual-hatted job (as we say in navy lingo) for the Carrier Division Commander based out of Japan. This guy also held the CTF-70 job. CTF-77 allowed multiple carrier battle group command when multiple carriers were operating in the 7th fleet area of operations (AOR). Again, by 1981 Commander, Carrier Division (later Carrier Group) Five, based in Yokusuka Japan was both CTF-70 and CTF-77. Theoretically the job should have always gone, during the Vietnam era, to the senior Carrier Division Admiral present at Yankee Station. During the later cold war it was activated only a couple times, in 1984 during three carrier operations and again, I think, during Maritime Strategy exercises in 1986 and 1987. The topic of multi-carrier operations (other than training evolutions in and around conus) after Vietnam would make a fascinating monograph. Best, John John T. Kuehn, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Military History Department of Military History U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, KS "Kuehn, John Dr CIV USA TRADOC" <firstname.lastname@example.org> ----- For subscription help, go to: http://www.h-net.org/lists/help/ To change your subscription settings, go to http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?SUBED1=h-war -----