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I must disagree, strongly, with Russell Burgos' suggestion that Saddam Hussein's relationship with Osama bin Laden resembled Francisco Franco's relationship with Adolf Hitler. Hitler provided substantial military aid to Franco, at a time when Franco was not at war, and did not seem to be planning to go to war, against any of the powers with which Hitler was contemplating a war. As far as I am aware, Hitler and Franco had a generally friendly relationship. Their ideologies were not identical, but as far as I am aware, they were reasonably compatible. Saddam Hussein was running a secular government in a Muslim, mostly Arab, country. Osama bin Laden hated secular rulers of Arab countries. Really hated them. Overthrowing them, and replacing them with Islamist regimes, was his highest goal in life. Saddam Hussein was aware of this. Which helps to explain why despite their common enemies, Saddam Hussein never provided, or even seriously considered providing, substantial military aid to Osama bin Laden. I am not saying the hatred between Saddam and Osama was so high a barrier between them that there are no circumstances in which they could have cooperated against a common enemy. But it made such cooperation very, very difficult. There was no such barrier between Franco and Hitler. Edwin E. Moise Clemson University