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Russell Burgos has written a long and thoughtful post on the domestic political context of the decision to invade Iraq, some of which I agree with and some of which I do not. I would put far more emphasis on the role of external events such as the 1998 embassy bombings in changing the decision-making context across the board and across much of the political spectrum (Cynthia McKinney was not even mainstream within the Democrat Party.) It was only following the bombings that the CIA set up a dedicated "bin Laden Desk," for example. But concerning the Garbage Can Model (GCM), it is a framework for understanding organizational decision-making, not domestic politics more broadly. It thus inherently offers a partial explanation of the intra-governmental processes, with domestic politics necessarily given less attention (really only seen as one "input.") I still believe the GCM is valuable for that limited purpose, and challenges those explanations that rely more on a "good guys-bad guys" framework that was and is quite politicized. Doug Macdonald Colgate University