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Re US contribution to advancement of NVN interests after 1970s departure from Vietnam, Americanization of the Vietnam guerrilla war involved attempting to overthrow the guerrilla movement with American conventional military power organized along the lines of fighting WW II style battles and practices. This was the pattern implemented to defeat the so-called "Aggression From the North" by giving the US superiority in those areas of military forces and practices then considered to be the dominant advantages of US doctrine and practices. By bringing into SVN territory the NVN regulars, the US did, eventually, pave the way for this descriptive history given above. In fact, the US abandoned some $12 billion worth of military equipages, deemed "obsolete" by US standards at the time mentioned of US abandonment of SVN and its government. If Communism were truly unified, there would have been no need for NVN to wage war with the Chinese. This peddling of views, that only a monolith existed, had been exposed by the Nixon-Kissinger diplomacy seeking to end US participation in SVN, more publicly, than up to that point in time though, the "split" was already known, previous to the Republican political takeover of the US Government Executive branch and foreign policy. This view, critiqued above, concerning a monolith is more the result of an attempt to "sell" for political and propaganda purposes a point of view concerning the nature of Communism then, which had no foundation either in that history nor politics. It is patently an error and likely being advanced for reasons having nothing to do with historical accuracy. Wyatt Reader MA//Whittier College-UCLA//US Govt. Ret.