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I read Prof. Kaiser's post to say that as a consequence of the American war in Vietnam, one million Vietnamese civilians were killed, and not to say that the Americans killed one million Vietnamese civilians (or killed the 59,000 American soldiers who died). Ch. 12, "More Than a Million Civilian Casualties," in Thomas Thayer, _War Without Fronts : The American Experience in Vietnam_ provides an estimate for civilian casualties based on several government sources and discusses another estimate from "Civilian Casualty and Refugee Problems in South Vietnam," Findings and Recommendations of the Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Connected with Refugees and Escapees, of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, May 9, 1968. Thayer notes that as the United States essentially blasted South Vietnamese civilians out of the countryside into cities (7 million tons of artillery rounds, four millions tons of bombs), the communists increasingly became responsible for civilian casualties. He provides an interesting analysis, using data such GVN Ministry of Health reports on hospital admissions and Hamlet Evaluation Survey questions (e.g., "Were any friendly artillery or air strikes directed in or neat the inhabited areas of the village this month?" Peter Brush Vanderbilt University --On Monday, November 22, 2004 11:27 AM -0800 "H-DIPLO [Ball]" <h-d1plo@SOCRATES.BERKELEY.EDU> wrote: > From: firstname.lastname@example.org > > David Kaiser writes: "Faced with a possible bad alternative, we > have to ask whether actions that the United States can take will > make things better or worse. The American attempt to save South > Vietnam killed 59,000 Americans, an estimated one million > Vietnamese civilian casualties..." > > I am not that familiar with Vietnam, so perhaps Professor Kaiser > can cite some primary source for the 1 million civilians killed > by American troops. Also, how many were killed by the Vietcong > and North Vietnamese?