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In Spanish America, the monarch had the right to present candidates to episcopal sees, which were always approved by the pope, as part of the Royal Patronage, Patronato Real. The monarch also claimed the right to interpret papal decrees and their application in his New World territories. This continued into the 19th century, when the Independent states sought to secure the same privileges. The Spanish crown gained similar privileges on the Iberian Peninsula, especially in Granada, in recognition of the final defeat of the Muslim state. From: Kenneth Parker <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Sat 05 Oct 2013 07:06 AM Here are a few references that might help. It is just a sample of the subject from a variety of national and geographical perspectives: William J. Bouwsma, “Gallicanism and the Nature of Christendom,” in *A Useable Past: Essays in European Cultural History* (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), 308-24 Luc Racaut, “Anglicanism and Gallicanism: Between Rome and Geneva?,” *Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte* 96 (2005): 198-220 Terence Fay, *A History of Canadian Catholics : Gallicanism, Romanism, and Canadianism* (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002) William Henn, *The Honor of My Brothers: A Brief History of the Relationship between the Pope and the Bishops *(New York: Herder and Herder, 2000), 131-6 Helmut Reinalter, *Der Josephinismus: Bedeutung, Einflüsse, und Wirkungen *(Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1993) Richard J. Schiefen, “‘Anglo-Gallicanism’ in Nineteenth-Century England,” *The Catholic Historical Review* 63:1 (January 1977), 14-44 Aimé-Georges Martimort, *Le Gallicanisme* (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1973) Victor Martin, *Les origins du gallicanisme*, 2 vols* *(Paris : Bloud et Gay, 1939) From: Dennis Castillo <email@example.com> Date: Mon 07 Oct 2013 10:47 AM In the 1890 Simmons-Rampolla agreement, the Vatican was required to gain British approval of those appointed the Bishop of Malta. It also required that these appointees be native Maltese clergy. There was actually a conflict that lasted from 1936 to 1943 because the British opposed the candidate preferred by the Vatican because of alleged pro-Italian sympathies. The source of this was not Gallicanism, but rather British security concerns regarding a major naval base. --