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Unfortunately, a strain of antisemitism existed and still exists in modern Greece; it has never been dominant, but neither was it ever extinguished. Greece was one of the first states to accord full civil and political rights to the Jews, and they were well integrated in the nineteenth century; but on the other hand the prominent position of the Orthodox church, as well as the nationalist ideas that dominated public discourse for the last century, left little space for unsanctioned ethnic or cultural, not to speak of national, diversity. There is a not unimportant bibliography covering the matter, mainly in Greek. Among the texts in other languages, one might note the following: An extensive and serious work, touching on the relations between Greeks and Jews, at around the turn of the twentieth century: Rena Molho, _Les Juifs de Salonique, 1856-1919: Une communaute hors norme_. These de doctorat de le Universite des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg 1996, vol 3. The most serious to date, I think, study of the social parameters of Greek Orthodox thought and culture, including references to the Orthodox church's relations with other organized religions: Paschalis Michael Kitromilides, _Enlightenment, Nationalism, Orthodoxy. Studies in the Culture and Political Thought of South-Eastern Europe_. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum Reprints 1994. An informative work, but with poor structure, lots of factual errors and reflecting unreflexive theoretical conceptions: Bernard Pierron, _Juifs et chretiens de la Grece moderne. Histoire des relations intercommunautaires de 1821 -1945_. Paris: Le Harmattan 1996. Finally, one might consult the announcements made at the 1st International Conference of the International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists, "Remember Salonika", Thessaloniki, June 25-28, 1998. Among them my own article, "Avraam Benaroya and the Impossible Reform" (in _Justice. Published by the International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists_. Special Issue [Spring 1999]), that examines briefly the situation of Jews in Greece, in the first decades of the twentieth century, as well as a failed attempt by the Greek state to outlaw religious discrimination and ethnic slandering, in 1924. On the recent revival of popular antisemitism, one might say that it is certainly related to the rise of racialist and nationalist feelings, observed lately in many European societies. It might also reflect widespread cultural anxieties, linked to the perceived pernicious effects of economic and cultural globalization. However, there is also on the rise a type of academic antisemitism, expressed in a sustained campaign, since 1998, aiming to delegitimize the well advanced integration of the Jewish community in Greek society. It seems to be centred around certain ultranationalist milieux related to the History and Archaeology department of the prestigious University of Athens, as well as to the Museum of the City of Athens. The latter is directed by an ex professor, who peddles conspiracy theories and extolls the works of Houston Stewart Chamberlain and similar luminaries. Unfortunately, certain media, not always marginal, tend to reproduce these lines of thought, and there is a real danger that intolerant conceptions, which are also being cultivated by vocal parts of the clergy and of the conservative political opposition, and even by a minority of the ruling Socialists, might come to the fore in the event of a government change. Spyros Marchetos, Faculty of Humanities, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece