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<firstname.lastname@example.org> May I suggest that the list originally given is somewhat over-simplified. For example, two forts are listed for Anomabu (and Fort William separately? and Castle Brew separately? these are both surviving structures within Anomabu town proper). There were dozens of 'lodges' as well around Anomabu during this time, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, etc. Some of the information for these can be found in the Transactions of the Gold Coast and Togoland Historical Society... which is rich in articles on Anomabu, Amoko, and 'forts' in general. In addition, for this entire coast in the 17th century, you really have to read Ray Kea's work. Not only will it give you the basic information you need, but it will help you question too easily accepted assumptions such as the "Significance of the arms trade. The Dane Gun was vital for Akan and Akwamu supremacy." This is a controversial statement! [ See Kea, Trade and Settlements]. Furthermore, you suggest that it is 'remarkable' that coastal people's were 'able to resist' penetration for 350 years... you might want to look at the European side of the equation for a moment... was penetration of the interior even desirable? On the African side, these coastal peoples were militarily very capable [see John Thornton]. Personally, I don't find it surprising at all that independence was preserved until well into the 19th century for all but a handful of towns. Frankly, many coastal peoples saw Asante as a more dangerous threat than Europeans.