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History Dept., Emory U., & History Dept., New Jersey Institute of Technology <firstname.lastname@example.org> [cross-posted from H-SAfrica] I would whole-heartedly second Bryan's recommendation that the student contact Fred Klaits. The student may also want to read Fred's very thoughtful article on "making a good death" (sorry dont have the reference with me) -- in _Botswana Notes and Records_ (1999 I think). In addition, Benedict Ingstad and Sheila Tlou have both published numerous articles on HIV/AIDS in Botswana, including some of the earliest work on this topic in the late 1980s and early 1990s. I don't have most of the specific references with me by Ingstad and/or Tlou, since I am away from my office -- but they include, Ingstad, "The Cultural Construction of AIDS and its Consequences for Prevention in Botswana", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 4:1, 1988, pp. 28-40 Ingstad, Bruun, and Tlou, "AIDS and the elderly Tswana: The concept of pollution and consequences for AIDS prevention", Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 12, 1997, pp. 357-372. Suzette Heald at Brunel in the U.K. just wrote a really fascinating paper on HIV in Botswana, but I am not sure if it is published anywhere yet. The student may want to contact her. Also she/he may want to get in touch with Charlanne Burke who I believe is currently at the Rockefeller foundation in New York. Charlanne is an anthropologist who did extensive field work with youth in Botswana in the late 1990s. Though she hasn't specifically written on AIDS/HIV her work on witchcraft and illness should be very helpful. She had a recent article on the subject in Current Anthropology (I think). One theme that I haven't seen mentioned in any of the public health or anthropological literature that your student may want to explore is how the rise of premarital sexuality in the 1930s (see Schapera's article on this) subsequently engendered new or changing forms of intergenerational dialogues over sexual behavior. In recent times in southeastern Botswana, there are many barriers to such conversations. While many youth have boyfriends or girlfriends with whom they have sexual relations, they are expected to keep this secret from their parents. To flaunt such relationships publicly was to insult parents. Young people I knew considered it polite to sneak their boyfriends or girlfriends into their compound at night while their parents/aunts/uncles/grandparents slept. Introducing boyfriends/girlfriends to parents was seen as very rude. It was only once a girl got pregnant (therefore after unprotected sex had taken place) that the couple was able (and expected) to introduce their relationship to their seniors. So for young couples in love, unprotected sex enables them to go public with their relationship (and obviously to have a child).