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Curtin University of Technology <firstname.lastname@example.org> While I agree with John Pape that this is a complex issue, that triage is often needed, and that resources need to be mobilised internally to ensure that archives are preserved and maintained, I think we also need to recognise that those very issues of maintenance, of cataloguing, of setting up web servers, of conservation and preservation of fragile paper materials, if handled appropriately, can provide opportunities for local capacity building and skills transfer and development. The training of local conservators, cataloguers, bibliographers, programmers, server maintenance personnel, has both intangible effects (for example, in a sense of ownership) and tangible effects (through the small economies that build around an archive, the taxis, bed and breakfasts, etc. Several contributors to this discussion have indicated the need for assistance from (might we even say partnerships with?) the North. Surely to continue to insist that materials can only be preserved by removing them from their contexts, without consideration of the assistance that could be given to enable them to be retained in their places of origin, is to be complicit in a long history of disempowerment. Yes, there are many places in Africa where changing this will meet with serious obstacles. There are others where genuine partnerships would be greeted and supported with enthusiasm. As Kathryn Green indicated earlier in this discussion, she is looking to find ways to fund a project in West Africa similar to that which has been undertaken in Bosnia. I wonder if we cannot go beyond reacting to crisis to looking for ways to assist the development of appropriate skills in areas where there is no immediate or critical need but in which capacity building would have impacts on local people out of all proportion to the funds expended. Surely it is not enough to describe "African" archives as inadequate, as having poor conservation values etc., without attempting to act, even in some small way?